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The Encircling of World War III – Iran Uranium Enrichment



Iran Uranium Enrichment

The news of Iran uranium enrichment is scary but not unpredictable. The country has been working on a nuclear program for decades now. The key sites are spread across the country, but the most attention is focused on two cities: Natanz and Fordo. 

Today, these two spots are the hotspot of Iran’s uranium enrichment programs. In the beginning, Iran attempted to conceal the existence of both sites, escalating fears that it might be covertly developing a nuclear weapon. However, now both sites are the subject of intense scrutiny.

Now, with the reports of more than doubled uranium enrichment in the country, the tensions between the US and Iran are growing. Here’s a complete explainer:

Iran Uranium Enrichment: An Overview

Natanz site was first exposed in 2002 when Iran secretly relocated the Kalaye Electric Company’s research, development, and manufacturing of gas centrifuges to Natanz. 

However, the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an opposition organization, revealed the location. Hence the operation was not kept a secret for very long. 

Natanz Nuclear Facility, Iran (Source: BBC)

Fordow, a remote site built deep in a mountain, was exposed in 2009 by Western Intelligence. That made US President Barack Obama, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, and UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown announce the site’s existence to the world.

Iran stated that its nuclear facility and program are only used for peaceful purposes and would only enrich uranium to 5% U-235 for military purposes. 

Iran, however, subsequently submitted a revised Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) in June 2011. Claiming that it intended to enrich uranium up to 20% U-235, activities were already started in December 2011.

The FFEP(Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant) was fully accessible to IAEA inspectors when Iran agreed to do so. And the inspectors confirmed that the facility complied with Iranian design requirements.

However, the IAEA highlighted increased concern over the prospect of other Iranian nuclear sites that are not currently declared, similar to the FFEP. Moreover, IAEA observed it did not give any proof that Iran diverted nuclear material produced at the FFEP for military reasons.

The 2015 Agreement: Iran Nuclear Deal

In response to these concerns, China, France, Germany, Russia, the UK, and the US initially signed the Joint Plan of Action (JPOA) in November 2013. The plan states that Iran will halt uranium enrichment above 5% at the FFEP for six months. And as part of the larger accord, Iran agreed to that. 

However, the Joint Plan of Action (JPA) was monitored by IAEA, and they verified Iran’s compliance with the JPA’s measures. Later on, the Joint Plan of Action (JPA) was eventually replaced with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in July 2015.  

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a historic agreement signed between Iran and a number of major superpowers, including the United States. 

Under its provisions, Iran consented to destroy a significant portion of its nuclear program and permit more thorough international inspections of its facilities in exchange for sanctions relief worth billions of dollars.

To decrease the likelihood of a confrontation escalating between Iran and its regional adversaries, such as Israel and Saudi Arabia, the deal’s proponents said that it would contribute to preventing a resurgence of Iran’s nuclear weapons development.

Moreover, with the historic agreement, Iran agreed to stop producing either plutonium or highly enriched uranium that may be used in nuclear weapons. It also took pains to ensure that only civilian endeavors, including medical and industrial research, would be carried out at its Fordow, Natanz, and Arak facilities.

Trump, the Deed Holder 

On 8th May 2018, Donald Trump, the then-president of the United States of America, suddenly backed out of this nuclear deal.

Additionally, Donald trump levied the highest level of sanction on Iran, stating that the agreement has a deteriorating and corrupt structure that is not preventing Iran from making a nuclear bomb.

Donald trump alleged that the Iran government supports terrorism and violence & fuels the chaos in the Middle East. However, political experts in the US believe that Trump backed off for one reason: that Obama signed the agreement, and he had to turn up everything that Obama did. 

Therefore Trump restarted the enmity with Iran again and declared economic sanctions. However, Trump did not stop there; he constantly accelerated the tension between the two countries. 

On 20th June 2019, a US drone was shot down by Iran on the charges of flying under Iranian territory. In one instance, there was a drone attack on Saudi Arabia’s oil tankers; the US alleged it was the deed of Iran.  

On 8th April 2019, Donald Trump made a historic decision by declaring the Iranian military branch Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps a Foreign Terrorist Organization.  

Moreover, on 3rd January 2020, Americans attacked Iran via drone and killed Iranian General Army Chief Soleiman, stating that the USA got the news that Soleiman was planning an attack on America.  

Iran’s Current Nuclear Activities 

Iran began going over the predetermined limitations for its stockpile of low-enriched uranium in 2019. Moreover, Iran also started enriching uranium to higher concentrations in reaction to the US sanction.

Additionally, it restarted heavy water production at its plant in Arak, developed new centrifuges to speed up uranium enrichment, and started enriching uranium at Fordow, rendering the isotopes created there useless for medical use.

The latest move by the Iran government against the retaliation was the enrichment of uranium by 60% purity at its Fordow nuclear plant and plans.  

“Iran had started producing high enriched uranium – UF6 (uranium hexafluoride) enriched up to 60% – using the existing two cascades of IR-6 centrifuges in the Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant, in addition to such product that has taken place at Natanz since April 2021,”

The director general of IAEA stated

Iran Uranium Enrichment: Is Iran really planning to make a nuclear Bomb? 

The fact that Iran has started higher uranium enrichment than allowed by the 2015 nuclear agreement is undoubtedly concerning. In addition, a heavy-water nuclear reactor might have produced plutonium, which can potentially be used to construct a nuclear bomb. 

The experts and researcher Mohammadbagher Forough believe –

It is true that Iran will have enough enriched uranium to make a nuclear bomb. Iran is still too far off the course, though. Iran would still need to stockpile more than 90% of its uranium to build a nuclear weapon.

Moreover, making only one nuclear weapon is never sufficient for any nation. The nuclear-power country never relies on only one bomb when aware of the consequences, presuming that the nation has several nuclear weapons. With only one nuclear weapon and without the strong backing of superpower nations, no war could be waged. 

There are also many other reasons that Iran is still far from making nuclear bombs. However, despite the increase in Iran’s uranium enrichment, the country lacks the significant elements to make a nuclear weapon. 

The IAEA has nevertheless brought up the question of Iran’s nuclear moment. Still, it is unable to conclude if the country is about to develop its nuclear weapons and that World War III is imminent.  





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Iran’s embrace of Bashar Assad: An indelible shame



Iran's embrace of Bashar Assad: An indelible shame

Bashar Assad, the little Hitler of Damascus, is undoubtedly the bloodiest Arab tyrant. The British-educated ophthalmologist is responsible for the utter destruction of the bulk of Syria, the death of around half a million citizens as well as the expulsion of half the population of the  Arab country, all in order to remain in power. Bashar is by no means the only criminal Arab dictator whose hands are stained with his people’s blood. In fact, most Arab leaders are actually despicable despots who should have been hanged or consigned behind bars for the rest of their lives. So, what are the reasons behind the Iranian Shiite regime’s dark embrace of Bashar Assad.

Enter Iran

The Shiite republic embrace of Bahsar Assad
Iran: Khamenei and Assad embrace at Tehran meeting:February 25, 2019 at 23:08 GMT +02:00 · Published

It is crystal clear that the so-called Shiite Islamic republic of Iran has been the most important ally of Bashar Assad after Putin’s Russia.

Indeed, from the very inception of the post-Shah regime, the  Mullas of Iran viewed Syria as a potential Shiite republic due to the fact that Assad is a member of the heterodox  Alawi Nusayri sect, which deifies the fourth Caliph Imam Ali. The only nominally Muslim sect, which has been in control of the Syrian government and army since the late 1960s,  makes up around 10-11% of Syria’s total population of 19 million.

Read Also: Let Iran have the bomb!

The sect is notoriously heretic, cultic, esoteric,  schismatic and highly secretive. The vast majority of Sunni and Shiite religious scholars consider the Nusayris as “apostate.” According to a famous Fatwa (religious edict)  by Ibn Taymiyya in the 14th century,  the  Alawis are farther from Islam than the Jews and the Christians and even more heretical than many of the polytheists and their harm to Muslims is greater than the harm of the infidel fighters such as the Mongols, the Crusaders, and others.

Sectarian ambitions

  It is not difficult at all to decipher the real reasons behind Iran’s embrace of Bashar Assad of. Assad offered himself to Iran’s Mullacracy as the main and last defender and protector of Shiism in the predominantly Sunni  Arab Middle East.

Of course this is a big lie and the Iranians know it. Religion, after all Is probably the last thing in the world that Assad really cares about.  The most logical and rational reason behind Iran’s embrace of Bashar Assad is the Mullahs’ unwavering wish to transform Syria into a predominantly Shiite republic, despite the fact that over 70% of Syria’s population are Sunni Muslims.

Iran accords little or no appreciation for this fundamental fact as it has been carrying out aggressive proselyting activities aimed at converting as many Sunnis  as possible into the Shiite faith.

Disgraceful intervention

Iran equipped and funded as many as 50 militias, compromising Shiite fanatics from Iraq, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Yemen to fight alongside the demoralized forces of  Assad.

Eventually, the Shiite militias decided to fight independently for two reasons: 1) Most of the soldiers and junior officers of the Assad regime’s troops were Sunnis, not Shiites. The better-equipped Alawi troops were deployed rather permanently in and outside  Damascus to thwart any possible coup attempt against the Assad regime. 2- the Syrian troops’ social behaviour didn’t conform with the rigid religious ideology of Shiite militiamen as the former indulged in all vices like alcohol drinking, drug addiction, adulterous and promiscuous behaviour and unreligious behaviour activities.

None the less, it is widely believed that the militiamen were involved  in carrying out numerous atrocities of Syrian Sunni civilians. The usually-ignorant militiamen were told by their Iranian superiors upon their arrival in Syria that they were fighting the murderers of Imam Hussein and taking part in the noble task of protecting the “holy grave” of saint Zaynab, sister of Imam Hussein.

Read Also: Iran is certainly not  Garden of Eden for Human Rights, but the West is absolutely  hypocritical

The truth of the matter is that Zaynab (may Allah be pleased with her) is highly respected and venerated by Sunni Muslims and that never in history have the People of Syria tried to damage, desecrate or vandalize her grave as Iranian Shiites did to graves of some Sahaba (companions of the Prophet) and Sunni scholars in Persia and recently in Syria. (Iran had been a predominantly a Sunni country before the Safawis’ bloody takeover in the 16-18 century.

The recruitment of Shiite fighters from Afghanistan eventually boomeranged on Shiite communities in Afghanistan itself  as Isis terrorists and others targeted  Shiite civilians in Kabul, Herat, and other places, killing hundreds of people. Shiite schools, mosques and community centers continue to be targeted in Afghanistan even after the return to power of the Taliban movement

Iran deserves a better leadership

The Iranian regime projects  a very poor case when defending their sectarian intervention in Syria. The Supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, was quoted as saying that as far as the Islamic Republic is concerned, defending Damascus was as important as defending Tehran and that preserving the regime of the Bashar Assad was as paramount as preserving the theocratic Shiite regime in Iran!

This “foolishness”, coming from a man widely considered by his followers as an infallible, divinely-guided imam and deputy to  Imam al-Zaman al-Madi  (the occulted imam). one can only implore Almighty Allah to free Muslims in Persia and elsewhere from the stranglehold of such mythology and sectarian blindness that is ravaging and corroding the great nation of Iran.  Iran simply deserves better leadership.

Sectarian blindness

Khamenaei’s staunch support for Bashar Assad and his regime is not only morally wrong and harmful and destructive to the entire Muslim Umma. It is also absolutely and totally incompatible with the basic tenets of Islam.

In fact, Assad’s evil credentials are known too well to every honest person in the Middle East. You don’t have to have a doctorate degree in political science or International Relations to discover the Satanic character of this thug.

As to Khamenei, he doesn’t have to speak with  Imam al Mahdi! to ask him about Bashar! Let him Just ask some honest Shiite scholars in Syria and Lebanon, they would tell him the truth

But if he doesn’t trust these people for one reason or the other, he should try to judge the Yazid of our time according to the scale of Imam Ali, or Imam Hasan, or Imam Hussein or Imam Jaafar Sadeq.

And if Those venerable imams failed to give a satisfactory answer, then judge the contemptible thug according to the scale of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him.

And if you still want to be certain 100% , there is always the Book of Allah, the Glorious Quran,  so you can find the ultimate answer, This is much better and safer for you and your hereafter.  Haven’t you read the verse- 113 of Surat Hud: 

And incline not toward those who do wrong, lest the Fire should touch you, and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor you would then be helped.






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Explaining Iran’s Islamic Revolution and its Legacy



Explaining Iran's Islamic Revolution and its legacy.

The protests in Iran today have raised many questions on the Islamic Revolution and its legacy. This article explains Khomeinism as a political ideology and attempts to answer why Iran failed to export its revolution to other Islamic countries.

Analyzing Ervand Abrahamian’s Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993) and Simon Wolfgang Fuchs’ “A Direct Flight to Revolution: Maududi, Divine Sovereignty, and the 1979-Moment in Iran”, this article argues that: (i) Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was politically expedient. He dressed a selection of Western political concepts in Islamic language and justified as well as historicized his ideas using examples from the history of Shia Islam. (ii) Iran was unable to export its revolution to other parts of the world, including its Muslim majority neighbouring countries like Pakistan because it had found the instrument of mobilization and justification for its revolution in the history of Shia Islam.

Khomeini was a Populist?

Abrahamian argues that the term “fundamentalist” that is usually used to label Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is not only confusing but also misleading in the context of the Iranian Revolution. He gives eight reasons to argue that Khomeini was not a fundamentalist. Further, the author goes into Khomeini’s ideology and views- especially his views on the state and the society, the Constitution of Iran and Khomeini’s political testament to argue that the term “populist” better fits Khomeini because his views and his actions resemble Latin American populism.

The author further highlights various conceptual inconsistencies in Khomeini’s ideas. There are several instances when Khomeini reacted to the emerging circumstances by changing his views, hence he was politically expedient. For years he had argued against women’s suffrage because it was un-Islamic but then Iran’s constitution implemented universal adult suffrage and Khomeini now argued that it was un-Islamic to deprive women of their voting rights. Hence, what was earlier un-Islamic later became Islamic. Khomeini essentially did a political interpretation of Islam (Quran and Islamic history) and dressed several Western political concepts like enqelab (revolution), jomhuri (republic), tabaqat (classes) in the Islamic language to make them appealing to the Muslim majority masses of Iran. Since Iran is a Shia majority nation, he provided justification for his views from Shia history. Khomeinism, thus, instrumentalized Islam for bringing about a revolution in Iran. However, it raises several questions- why would the masses follow? Why would they accept inconsistencies in Khomeini’s thought, especially when something that was considered un-Islamic earlier was declared Islamic later? Since politically expedient means were deployed to bring about the revolution, was the Iranian Revolution more about the consolidation of Shia identity in the world rather than an Islamic revolution?

Also Read: Mahsa Amini: Iranian Women Are Leading an Extraordinary Revolution

Why Iran was not able to Export its Revolution?

Fuchs explores the engagement of Pakistan’s Jamaat-i-Islami (JI) with the post-revolutionary Iran. He analyses various JI leaders’ travelogues and several JI publications to argue that initially JI was enthusiastic about the revolution but it slowly grew concerned about the same around the early 1980s. JI initially thought that the Islamic Revolution in Iran was the realization of JI founder Maududi’s concept of hakimiyya ilahiyya (God’s sovereignty). In order to not miss the woods for the trees, they first ignored the sectarian implications of the revolution. They also turned blind eye to the top-down model of the revolution. Since JI has always advocated the bottom-up approach to bring about Islamicization of the society, Iranian Revolution did not fit into their ideology.

However, when it was apparent that it was the Shia history of Islam and the Shia model of governance that was being deployed in Iran, JI grew concerned. At home, JI also found itself being called out by Sunni organizations for appeasing and being soft on Shia. In order to highlight the JI’s distancing from the Iranian Revolution, Fuchs cites the example of the absence of Irani delegation and absence of any mention of the Iranian Revolution at a seminar hosted by JI in Lahore in November 1989, where several international delegations were present, to discuss the questions and the challenges facing the ‘Muslim World’. Fuchs does not however inform if there was any Shia Islamist organization from any other country present at all among the 30 organizations that were represented at the seminar.

Anyway, JI’s engagement with post-revolutionary Iran raises a question- did JI expect too much from Khomeini? As argued by Abrahamian, Khomeini was pragmatic and in order to get support from the majority, it was realistic for him to address his message to the Shia majority population of Iran.  

Since it is apparent that Khomeini’s selective use of history and language of Shia Islam appeared sectarian to JI, forcing the organization to practice social distancing from the revolution, it would be safe to assume, within the context of the information provided by Abrahamian and Fuchs, that Iran was unable to inspire a revolution in other Muslim majority countries, like its neighbouring country Pakistan, primarily because it adopted the language and history of Shia Islam. That would explain why Iran has not been able to export its revolution to other Islamic countries.      

Also Read: The US and Israel are Weaponizing Iran Protests


This article analysed Ervand Abrahamian’s Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993) and Simon Wolfgang Fuchs’ “A Direct Flight to Revolution: Maududi, Divine Sovereignty, and the 1979-Moment in Iran”, to argue that Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was politically expedient. It further argued that Iran was unable to export its revolution to other parts of the world, including its Muslim majority neighbour countries like Pakistan because it had found the instrument of mobilization and justification for its revolution in the history of Shia Islam and therefore had sectarian implications.





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Mahsa Amini: Iranian Women Are Leading an Extraordinary Revolution



The Death of Mahsa Amini Ignited a Wave of Protests Across Iran

The Death of Mahsa Amini Ignited an Unprecedented Wave of Protests Across Iran

On the 16th of September 2022, Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old Kurdish-Iranian woman, died in the custody of Iran’s morality police following her arrest for improper wear of hijab. Both Mahsa and her brother were beaten at the time of her arrest.

Iran’s morality police routinely arbitrarily detain women who do not comply with their discriminatory and compulsory veiling laws. The death of Mahsa Amini was the powder keg moment that ignited this most recent uprising resulting in seven weeks of protests. This has been the most significant threat the theocratic Iranian regime has witnessed since the 1979 revolution.

It is becoming apparent that this isn’t about reform; it’s about outright regime change. In the eyes of the Islamic Republic, the compulsory hijab is not just a mere piece of cloth. The hijab is one of the critical pillars of the ideology of this regime.

Women are protesting on the streets, removing their hijabs and setting them on fire while cutting their hair in protest. Many have been arrested and sent to psychological re-education centres, beaten, raped, and murdered. The most unprecedented part of these protests is that they’ve been led by women. This shows how courageous Iranian women are in leading an extraordinary revolution.

The Death of Mahsa Amini Ignited an Unprecedented Wave of Protests Across Iran
Caption: An Iranian woman holds a piece of her hair she cuts off, during a protest outside the Iranian Consulate following the death of Mahsa Amini, in Istanbul, Turkey. 26 September 2022. EPA-EFE/SEDAT SUNA.

Hundreds Have Been Brutally Murdered By Iranian Police After Masha Amini’s Death

The Islamic Republic does not allow its citizens the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. This right is guaranteed under Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Instead, the Islamic Republic kills protesters with batons and bullets. As of the 8th of November 2022, the death toll from the Islamic Republic’s crackdown on Iran’s 2022 protests increased to 304 people, including 41 children and 24 women. Repressive regimes lack transparency, so the actual number of protesters killed often goes vastly underreported.

Read also: Death of Mahsa Amini: How Governments Deny Women’s Right to Choice?

A Long History of Women’s Resistance in Iran

Mahsa Amini’s death follows decades of women’s resistance in Iran. Women played a critical role in Iranian society by establishing women’s associations, joining protests and supporting strikes. This is the first time since the inception of the theocracy in 1979 that people openly and fearlessly oppose Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. Challenging Iran’s supreme leader is one of the most significant revolutions in modern-day history.

Following the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Iranian women launched massive protests after hearing rumours regarding a mandatory hijab mandate. These protests were influential as they postponed its enactment. However, the mandate was eventually instated in 1983. Women showed their strength in actively protesting against the regime.

Comparatively, in recent times the enormous bravery of women like Sepideh Rashno, Mahsa Amini and Nika Shakarami against Iran’s restrictions on women’s rights has sparked a catalyst for change. The Iranian authorities have consistently dealt with waves of mass protests. Including those held in November 2019, January 2020, July 2021, August 2021, November 2021 and May 2022, with a militarized response.

The Establishment of the Woman-Life-Freedom” Movement

Following the death of Mahsa Amini, Iran has seen the rise of the “Women, Life, Freedom Movement”. This is a widespread protest that has now entered its fourth week. The movement’s slogan is a declaration of opposition to the Islamic Republic, a regime built on anti-woman, pro-martyrdom, and repressive ideologies.

Thousands of Iranians protest against the Islamic regime’s repressive treatment and continuous human rights violations. Iranians are speaking up against the regime carrying signs saying “Death to the dictator”. Young schoolgirls chanted, “we don’t want the Islamic Republic.” In recent weeks, Iranians have been actively fighting against security forces while tearing down billboards and burning pictures of the founder of the Islamic Republic, Ayatollah Khomeini.

Although the protests initially started over the frustration of the mandatory hijab, they developed into representing a much broader movement of overthrowing the entire regime. These restrictions have intensified under President Raisi, who took office in August 2021, leading to further tension among Iranians.

According to the World Economic Forum’s 2022 Global Gender Gap Report, Iran ranks 143 of 146 countries. The Islamic Republic exemplifies why countries with gender-discriminatory laws experience the most significant turmoil, compromising international peace and security.

The Islamic Republic Detained Thousands of Protesters and Activists

Thousands of protesters and human rights activists are now facing unfair trials, with some facing the risk of the death penalty for protesting against Mahsa Amini’s death.

Human Rights Watch has reported on security forces’ unlawful use of excessive or lethal force. Moreover, on October 31, 2022, the Tehran Province’s judiciary held that it had issued approximately 1,000 indictments against protesters and activists.

Furthermore, the Iranian authorities have subjected detainees to various forms of physical and psychological torture and other ill-treatment. Two female detainees arrested in Kurdistan reported that Iranian police tortured them with batons, electric shocks, sexual and verbal assault, and threats.

“Iran’s vicious security apparatus is using every tactic in its book, including lethal force against protesters, arresting and slandering human rights defenders and journalists, and sham trials to crush widespread dissent,”

Tara Sepehri Far, senior Iran researcher at Human Rights Watch.

Iranian authorities have arrested 308 university students and 44 children. Security forces have targeted universities with excessive use of force and arbitrarily detained students.

According to the Human Rights Activists News Agency, the protests have reached 133 cities and 129 universities, as well as several secondary schools.

International Response to Iran’s Uprisings

Solidarity protests in support of Iranian women’s rights have erupted across Europe, the United States, and parts of the Middle East.

The Death of Mahsa Amini Ignited an Unprecedented Wave of Protests Across Iran
Caption: Supporters hold posters with the image of Mahsa Amini outside the United Nations in New York © Stephanie Keith/Getty Images.

According to Amnesty International, more than one million people across 218 countries have signed their petition. This petition demanded an establishment of an independent UN mechanism to conduct an investigation in Iran. Therefore, this would ensure Iran faces the consequences for committing some of the most serious crimes listed under international law.

Failing to establish accountability encourages impunity, further emboldening the Iranian authorities to continue to intensify human rights violations. The United Nations Human Rights Council should urgently hold a special session on Iran.

Read also: The US and Israel are Weaponizing Iran Protests.

Concluding Thoughts

The protests over Mahsa’s death and the officials’ refusal to be held accountable have resulted in frustration and resentment over the political status quo. This has increased demands for democracy.

It takes immense courage and bravery for any woman to participate in this extraordinary revolution happening in Iran. Young girls risk arrest, school expulsion, and death when exercising their freedom of expression.

The world’s silence on this issue enables continued human rights abuses in Iran. The international community must stand up against the Islamic Republic and demand its adherence to binding human rights obligations.

Politics, money and states’ interests continue to come before human rights. The United Nations has repeatedly failed to adequately address human rights violations committed by authoritarian regimes. Despite this, we must rebuild our trust in this global governance mechanism. The United Nations intends to protect states regardless of geographical borders, race, religion, ethnicity, gender or social class.

This begs the question; will the United Nations stand with the women of Iran in upholding their human rights?





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