The Ottoman Empire reached its peak of glory and power during the 16th and 17th centuries, extending its territory to large parts of the three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa.
The number of Ottoman states reached 29. The Ottoman state had sovereignty over a few distant countries because of being Islamic states that legitimately follow Sultan Osman because he holds the title of “caliph of Muslims”.
The origin of the Ottoman state
The Ottomans descended from the Turkmen Oghuz tribes. Because of the Mongol raids, they moved from their native Mongolia to the West. in 1237, they established a territory in Petynia (northern Anatolia, opposite the Crimean Islands).
They then managed to dislodge the Seljuks from the Anatolian region. During the reign of Sultan Osman I (Osman son of Ertugl) (1280-1300 AD
Cradle of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1453)
The Ottomans belong to the Turkmen tribe of IYI (QIA obasi in Turkish), who at the beginning of the 7th century A.D. lived in Kurdistan.
As a result of the Mongol invasion led by Genghis Khan, it moved west, primarily to the state of Khorezm.
Then headed towards Iraq and the regions of East Asia. They were headed by (Suleiman Shah Son of QIA ALB) grandfather of Osman, who decided to emigrate in 617 AH corresponding to 1220 AD with his tribe and settled in the city of Akhlat located in the east of Turkey in the present day
When the tide of the Mongols invasion reduced, he wanted to return to his first home, and he continued to Diyarbakir, and went towards Raqqa, and wanted to cross the Euphrates River, he drowned in 628 ah, and he was buried there near the fortress of Jabar.
His four sons differed in the path that they should take, but his eldest son (Sengortkin) fulfilled his father’s desire and returned with his brother ( Kun Tagri) to their first homeland, and it was (Sengortkin) who took command of the tribe and its leadership after the death of his father
The other two brothers, namely (Ertugrul) and (Dandan), turned back. It was the middle Ertugrul the leader of the remaining group of the tribe, who continued to move northwest of Anatolia. he had with him about a hundred families and more than four hundred knights.
Beginning of the Ottoman Empire
The leadership of the state after Ertugrul was held by his son Osman, who maintained loyalty to the Seljuk state
At the beginning of his reign, Osman showed political intelligence in his relations with his neighbors. He made alliances with the neighboring Turkmen tribes.
The weakness of the Byzantine Empire and its involvement in wars in Europe encouraged him to direct his military activity towards Byzantine lands by opening all Byzantine lands and converting them to Islamic lands.
From an administrative point of view, Osman showed great ability in developing the administrative systems of his state. During his reign, the Ottomans transmitted from a mobile tribe to a stable management system, which helped it consolidate its position and rapidly develop into a major state.
The Seljuk Sultan Aladdin keqbad III deeply appreciated Osman’s services, giving him the title of “Osman Ghazi”
Osman: The true founder of the great Turkish state
In 1291, Osman opened the city of “Qarah Jahhisar”, located south of Scud, and made it his base, from which he led his tribe to the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
When the Mongols conquered the Seljuk state of Konya, Othman quickly declared his independence from the Seljuk and called himself “Padishah Al-Othman”. He was thus the true founder of this great Turkish state.
Osman continued to rule the new state as an independent Sultan until April 6, 1326, corresponding to 2 Jumada 1st 726 AH, when his son Orkhan occupied the city of Bursa located near the Sea of Marmara.
In this year Osman died at the age of seventy years after he laid the foundations of the state and paved its path of growth and prosperity.
The constitution followed by the Ottomans
The religious scholars surrounded Osman and supervised the administrative planning and the implementation of the law in the state
The history has preserved the will of Osman to his son Orkhan on his deathbed and that will have a cultural significance and a legitimate methodology followed by the Ottoman state later, Osman says in his will:
“O my son: do not engage in something that is not commanded by God. O my son: bless those who obey you, and bless the soldiers. Make sure Satan does not tempt you and does not turn away from the people of the religion. O my son: you know that our purpose is to please God and that by jihad the light of our religion pervades all horizons. O son: We are not one of those who wage wars for the lust of rule or control of individuals, we in Islam Live and die. And that, my son, is what you are.”