The end of the Rashid caliphate

After the death of Ali ibn Abi Talib, his son Al-Hasan ibn Ali was his successor, and the caliph Al-Hasan began to organize the administrative conditions of the country

The people of Iraq urged the Caliph Al-Hasan to fight, but Al-Hasan had doubts in the people of Iraq. So, he did not call for a fight, but he rather took a position to go with some tribes to the cities.

Al-Hasan asked for Obaidullah bin Abbas and ordered him to fight Muawiyah Bin Abu Sufyan in the Levant (Bilad El-Cham).

Muawiyah was able to buy the loyalty of some leaders and began to negotiate with Al-Hasan about stepping aside from being a caliphate in case he was dead.

Muawiya agreed to the conditions of Hassan and began the History of the Umayyad state.

History of the Umayyad state

When talking about the history of the Umayyad state it has to be mentioned that it is the largest state and the second caliphate in Islam

It is also considered one of the largest ruling states in history. The rule of Bani Umayya began from year 41 AH, until 132 Ah,

The Umayyad state was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan. Muawiya was the ruler of al-Sham since the days of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab

The dispute between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiya began after the sedition in which Osman Ibn Afan was killed, till Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib abandoned the caliphate to Muawiya after the death of his father Ali.

Revolutions in the Umayyad state

The history of the Umayyad state has witnessed many revolutions. including the revolutions of the Shiites and the rebels that took revenge for the death of Hussein bin Ali in the Battle of Karbala by the Umayyads

Hajjaj ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi had a great role in extinguishing these revolutions as the ruler of Iraq and Kufa the most enemies of the Umayyad state

The Umayyad successors of the Sufyan branch

When talking about the history of the Umayyad state it is necessary to know the caliphs who were the founding of the Umayyad state

They are the successors of the Sufyan branch, namely caliph Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, and his son Yazid ibn Muawiya:

Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan

In narrating the history of the Umayyad state it is necessary to talk about its founder, which is Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan is the first successor of the Sufyan branch of the Umayyad state

He ruled from the year 41 AH until the year 60 AH. The Umayyad state under MU’awiya has lived twenty years of peace and internal prosperity, conquests and victories abroad،

Yazid ibn Muawiya

Yazid took the caliphate after his father and continued his rule from the year 60 ah until the year 63 ah.

Many revolutions have sparked against him, including the revolution of Hussein bin Ali, who was killed along with some of his family by the Umayyads.

Umayyad successors who descend from Caliph Marwan bin al-Hakam

When talking about the Umayyad state we should talk about the successors of the second branch, which is the Branch that descends from Caliph Marwan bin al-Hakam.

He ruled from 64 ah until 65 ah. Marwan died 10 months after being the caliphate. Then his son became his successor.

Abdulmalik bin Marwan

Abdulmalik bin Marwan ruled in 65 ah after the death of his father, until the year 86 Ah.

He was able to put down many revolutions, including the tuabin movement, the Mukhtar revolution, the movement of Musab bin Al-Zubair, and Abdullah bin Al-Zubair.

After achieving stability in his lands, he began to prepare campaigns to fight against the Roman.

Abdul Malik ibn Marwan died at the age of 60 in Damascus to be succeeded by his son Al-Walid.

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ruled a strong state free of internal revolts.

He ruled until 96 Ah, he began the external conquests until his armies reached huge places in the 4 directions.

Speaking of internal affairs in the state, he also made lots of achievements, especially in architecture, caring for the parish, and charity for the poor.

Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik

He ruled in 96 ah and continued his rule until 99 ah. Suleiman sent lots of campaigns for his war against the Roman his armies entered the waters of the Bosphorus, even his army settled in front of the walls of Constantinople

Omar bin Abdul Aziz

The rule of Omar bin Abdul Aziz continued from the year 99 ah, until the year 101 Ah. His succession was described as the era of  stability and justice

Omar replaced most of the rulers with more competent and perfect rulers who followed Islamic law. He called for equality and gave the poor and the sick

Yazid bin Abd al-Malik

Yazid II received the rule in 101 ah and continued until 105 ah. He was familiar with recklessness, laziness, and his love for women.

In his reign the rebels revolted against him, Conquests stopped

Hisham bin Abdulmalik

Hisham bin Abd al-Malik received the caliphate in 105 ah and continued until 125 Ah.

Abd al-Malik was far-sighted and bold. He established balance and justice in his state, tried to eliminate corruption, monitored the state’s general budget, and established public services.

Hisham was able to stop the revolution of Zayd ibn Ali in Iraq. He resumed conquests against the Romans and against the Turk.

Al-Walid II bin Yazid II

Al-Walid received the rule for one year only، From the year 125 ah until the year 126 ah.

He lived a lavish life and spent all the state budget until he was killed

Yazid III and Ibrahim ibn al-Walid

He began to reform the affairs of the state. Imposed a policy of austerity on his family and on himself and promised to return the warriors back to their families who haven’t seen them in a long time.  

He also promised not to shut his door in front of his parish. He died in the same year he became the caliphate, followed by Ibrahim ibn al-Walid but was killed by the last Umayyad caliph Marwan ibn Muhammad.

Marwan Ibn Muhammad

He continued his rule from 127 ah until 132 ah, and was a strong and intelligent warrior. He moved the headquarters of the caliphate to Haran.

Many revolutions revolted against him in most of the country, especially in Khorasan.

The Umayyad state ended when Marwan lose in the Battle of the Zab.