The Abbasids lineage goes to the Hashemite of the Quraysh that existed in Mecca. The term Abbasids refers to the uncle of the Prophet -PBUH- Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib -may Allah be pleased with him.
Beginning of the Abbasid Era
The establishment of the Abbasid Era began by Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas, the motive was to return the caliphate to the house of the messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.
It began in the early second century when the Umayyad Era was powerful.
The Caliph at that time was Umar ibn al-Aziz. It had two headquarters, the first in Kufa and the second in Khorasan. When Muhammad ibn Ali died his son Ibrahim took his place.
Ages of the Abbasid Era and features of each Era
The Abbasid Era passed through many ages. There Some ages were characterized by their weakness and there was that is characterized by strength.
1st Era: The era of power and expansion
The Abbasid Era began with Abdullah Al-Asghar, known as the Ripper, as he spent most of his rule in eliminating movements that try to restore the order to the Umayyads.
He consolidated his rule by appointing his relatives in governance. After him came Abu Jafar al-Mansur who continued what Abdullah Al-Asghar started.
After al-Mansur, came his son Mahdi. Mahdi was known for his justice and mercy. Mahdi eliminated his cousin Isa ibn Musa and took the abbey to his sons Al-Hadi and Harun Al-Rashid.
This Era reached its peak of power and prosperity during the rule of Haran al-Rashid. Even the rulers of Europe were trying to get closer to him.
He was very merciful to his people as he getting undercover in order to see the conditions of people closely. His wars with Byzantium were as intense as those who preceded him,
The 2nd Era: the Era of the Turkish
This Era wasn’t similar to the first. As the first was characterized by the strength of the caliphs and their ability to manage the state. That wasn’t in the second Era; Because of the different personalities of the caliphs of this era than before. As well as because of the social, economic, and political conditions, and the great expansion of the state.
Since the non-Arab peoples felt persecuted by the Abbasid state, giving the Abbasid state complete freedom and rights to those peoples led to their thinking of establishing separate states.
Since the influence of the Turks increased, some Abbasid caliphs appointed some Turkish leaders over the remote states, who in turn appointed their deputies in ruling positions.
And the Caliph neglected to hold them accountable and those deputies increased taxes on the people who waited for the one who lifted injustice upon them. At that time, the Zanj movement was a crucial stage in the life of the Abbasid Caliphate.
The 3rd Era: the Era of Persian Bohemia
This era is a violent reaction to the Turkish influence that seized The capabilities of the Abbasid state. It is the Era when the Sons of Buye appeared on the scene and formed a secessionist movement and established a state in:
- Isfahan and Hamadan
The one who is responsible for this movement is Ali bin Shuja bin Buye, who was able to attract people to him with his courage and good management
The 4th Era: The Turkish Seljuk era
The Abbasid State reached the last breath, and the situation got worse between the Sunnis and the Shiites until it became imagined to the beholder that Islam is in its last phase.
Meanwhile, a state called the Seljuk state was founded by the Seljuk Sultan Tughrulbek in Khorasan in 431 Ah
It embraces and defends the Sunnis and the Jamaat, and began their movement in Persia to eliminate the Shia Buhayyah state
The most prominent caliphs of the Abbasid state
- Abu Ja’far al-Mansur: The second successor of the Abbasid state, ruled between the years (137 Ah – 158 Ah), Abdullah bin Muhammad Bin Ali bin Abdullah bin, Abbas.
- Harun al-Rashid: Harun Ibn bin Muhammad, ruled between the years (170 Ah – 193 ah). A strong pious obedient to his Lord. He has prevailed in safety, prosperity, and stability in his reign so people loved him.
One of his most popular good deeds, he used to hide and get undercover to see how sellers act in the markets.
Al – Mu’tasim: The son of Harun al-Rashid, ruled between the years (218 Ah-227 ah), He does not know reading nor writing but he was brave and strong and well known for his justice.