Islamic civilization employed art to serve religion and science. As its artistic industries are not random but based on specific elements and obvious methods to express its beliefs and ideas artistically. It created a balance between the sanctity of religion and the modernity of the world.
Islamic art based on the shoulders of the Umayyad era and gradually moved to Later times. All of which created various artistic elements that added beauty and different distinction to the artistic legacy that Islamic civilization left to the world, from Spain ending to India.
Without any doubt, you can say that Islamic art was close to the architecture of mosques which reflected the essence of Islamic principles based on simplicity and modesty. There are lots of essential elements that distinguish it from the rest including:
The art of twining:
The character of Islamic art in nature field has evolved focusing on adornments and plant drawings in certain parts of plants and flowers, such as:
It’s drawn in curves, intertwined, or symmetrical forms. Where used to decorate doors, settlement, and ceilings. And it’s frequently used in Syria, Iraq, and Egypt between the 13th and 9th centuries in the Mamelukes era
The geometric patterns
It is widely used in the Umayyad era by using cross-sections and intersecting forms. It reflected the skill of manipulating the shadow and light on the inside and the outside parts of patterns
geometric patterns decorated palaces and baths. As found at Hisham Bin Abdul Malik’s Al-Khair Palace, Omar’s palace in Badia Al-Sham, and the Fatimid baths in Egypt.
The French critic Henry Fosción says:
“I do not think anything that can represent and reflect life, and moves us to its hidden content like the geometric patterns of the Islamic motifs. These patterns are the fruit of thought based on an accurate calculation, which may turn into a kind of graphic of philosophical ideas and spiritual meanings. But we should not fail to miss that, through this abstract framework.”
The Islamic civilization has taken care of its Arabic characters and the beauty of its innovative and varied lines. And made the Arabic character a key element in its patterns, and it has developed it until it became a cultural heritage by itself.
The Islamic civilization has used Arabic writing to enchant the words of praise, and it was used in the writing of the holy book “the Quran” which has spread widely in all Muslim countries
Muslims who made lots of geometric shapes used the Mosaic a lot. They have developed the beauty of its colors, and the consistency of its glass, marble, and decorated with minarets and domes. In the same way, they used them in palaces and watersheds. The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and Hisham Palace in Palestine in Jericho City has lots of it too.
By these forms, Islamic art has been able to remove these expressions away from its material value. And create visual beauty in the interlocking, symmetrical, colors, and lines in different ways.
There is a clear focus on repetition and replication. It translates the philosophy on which Islamic art is based, all the forms that are repeated, and revolve indicate that God is the center of the universe and everything that starts from and returns to.
As mentioned earlier, each age of Islamic eras has a different artistic character. For example, large doors decorated with bloody and animal paintings are what the Fatimid style was famous for. As well as drawing on glass artifacts such as glasses and dishes.
Speaking of the Mameluke style, it was famous for its precious and copper artifacts, and for its art of line. They wrote the names of the sultans and the princes using the art of line. And they were distinguished in drawing polymorphic geometric shapes, using marble mosaics as vertebrates, triangles, intersecting lines, and interlocking lines.
The Islamic art is based on simplicity
Islam prohibits sliver or gold using in mosques decoration or in dishes manufacturing. Therefore, the Islamic art created and used lots of ceramics. And with this evolve the arabesque motifs began to come to light, which overlaps the plant shapes with geometric shapes, complex or simple designs, which also were drawn on weapons and swords.
Within this framework, Islamic art is far from exaggeration in luxury and awe. But based on simplicity in choosing materials like wood, glass, and clay in its works of art.
It has fought the use of silver and gold in decorating mosques and Islamic monuments. However, he could create valuable art objects and masterpieces of beauty without using precious stones.